|Bone Marrow Cancer Symptoms|
Bone marrow cancer symptoms
Bone marrow is defined as the spongy substance inside the bone and contains stem cells that can form both red and white cells and platelets, and bone marrow cancer occurs when the cells inside it begin to grow abnormally or at a faster rate than normal, and this cancer has several types, the most important of which are :
- Multiple myeloma: One of the most common types of bone marrow cancer, it often begins in the plasma white blood cells responsible for the production of antibodies, and this tumor occurs when large amounts of these cells are produced, leading to a decrease in bone mass, and a decrease in the body's ability to fight infections. .
- Leukemia: This cancer occurs when the body produces abnormal blood cells that do not die properly, which leads to the accumulation of abnormal blood cells in the bloodstream, thus affecting the function of normal cells such as platelets and red blood cells.
- Lymphoma: This cancer includes two main types, Hodgkin's lymphoma, which develops from white B cells, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which arises from both B and T white cells, and this cellular proliferation affects the function of the immune system.
Bone marrow cancer has 3 main types that differ in the type of tumor cells, which leads to a difference in the symptoms that accompany them.
Symptoms of multiple myeloma
Symptoms in which multiple myeloma appears and the age at which it appears varies from one patient to another, with the possibility of no symptoms in some patients, while life-threatening symptoms may appear in others, and these symptoms may appear in some, and the most important of these symptoms include:
- Bone pain: It is the most common symptom in the presence of multiple myeloma, usually in the lower back and ribs, and movement exacerbates this pain, and these people can be exposed to bone fractures more than the rest of the people.
- High level of calcium in the blood: Bone damage can occur in the presence of a tumor, causing damage to the bone structure and releasing calcium into the bloodstream, leading to multiple symptoms due to hypercalcemia, which may include:
- Abdominal pain.
- muscle pain;
- Excessive thirst.
- Lack of blood elements: Excessive production of plasma cells may hinder the production of other blood cells or affect their function, leading to:
- Symptoms of anemia: such as fatigue, dizziness and pallor.
- Symptoms of thrombocytopenia: such as abnormal bleeding, which leads to a purple discoloration of the skin.
- Symptoms of a decreased immune system function: such as frequent infections and, more commonly, pneumonia .
- Kidney damage: Abnormal proteins produced by tumor cells may cause kidney damage that may lead to final kidney failure.
- Hyperviscosity: Due to the abnormal accumulation of abnormal proteins in the bloodstream, the blood can become abnormally viscous, resulting in symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome, which may include:
- Frequent bruising.
- Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract .
- Vision change.
Myeloma can cause many symptoms that may be associated with a deficiency or ineffectiveness of blood elements, such as anemia, bleeding, and recurrent infections.
Symptoms of leukemia
Different types of leukemia can cause a number of different problems, and no symptoms may be observed in the early stages of some types of leukemia, while severe symptoms may appear in others, and the most important symptoms that may be seen include:
- Blood clotting disorders: Easy bruising and a delayed recovery period, or petechiae may appear on the skin.
- Recurrent infections: The presence of nonfunctional white cells in the blood may compromise the body's ability to fight pathogens, leading to recurrent infections.
- Anemia: The abnormal proliferation of white blood cells may reduce the work of red blood cells, leading to difficulty breathing and pale skin.
- Other symptoms may include:
- Night sweats.
- Flu-like symptoms.
- Weight loss.
- Bone pain.
- general debility
Leukemia can lead to a number of symptoms associated with poor functioning of the blood components, such as anemia, frequent infections, and blood clotting disorders.
Symptoms of lymphoma
Lymphoma is sometimes difficult to diagnose because the symptoms and signs are often mild, and no signs may appear at the beginning of the disease, but as the lymphoma grows, symptoms associated with the presence of a swollen lymph node may appear, and may be noticed by the patient or health care provider, and includes the most important The main symptoms and signs associated with lymphoma:
- Painless swelling in the lymph nodes in the armpit, neck, or groin.
- Enlargement of the spleen .
- Increased number of abnormal lymphocytes in the blood.
- Night sweats.
- Unexplained weight loss of up to 10% of body weight.
- Recurrent infections.
- Easy bruising of the skin.
- Loss of appetite .
- Neck or flank pain.
- Pressing pain in the chest, which may be associated with shortness of breath and coughing when the nodes in the chest swell.
- Abdominal pain or bloating.
Lymphoma can cause disturbances in the body due to the inability of blood cells to function properly and may cause local disturbances due to the accompanying enlargement of the lymph nodes.
Bone marrow cancer recovery outlook
Pure cancer takes the bone of myeloma type multi - ranked the 14th most cancers caused deaths in the United States of America, and approximately 2.1% of all cancer deaths, According to the American Cancer Society "diagnosed multiple especially myeloma at those over the age of 65 years, constitutes the Less than 1% of cases are under 35 years of age,” The survival rates of people with multiple myeloma compared to their peers without cancer depend on the neoplastic stage, with average survival rates including:
- The first stage: 62 months, which is approximately 5 years.
- The second stage: 44 months, which is approximately 3-4 years.
- The third stage: 29 months, approximately 2-3 years.
Can some types treat blood very effectively cancer cure rate may reach children with leukemia lymphoblastic acute to 90% of cases, according to the National Institute of Cancer Epidemiology has a cure rate relative to a period of 5 years in patients with leukemia is about 61%, The The cure rates for people with lymphoma are as follows:
- Is to Amfawma Hodgkin 's cancer may be treated, where survival rates are estimated to survive for a period of 5 years , according to the stage of the disease as follows:
- First stage: 92.3%.
- Stage two: 93.4%.
- Third stage: 83.0%.
- Fourth stage: 72.9%.
- First stage: 81.8%.
- The second stage: 75.3%.
- Third stage: 69.1%.
- Fourth stage: 61.7%.
By applying the correct treatment according to the tumor stage, bone marrow cancer can be successfully treated.