|delayed speech in children|
Sometimes some disorders and speech defects may occur in children, and despite the recent interest in speech defects and disorders by scientists of special education and psychologists, this interest began since the sixties of the last century, but with the spread of technology and with the spread of speech defects in all groups of children It has become necessary to study this subject and discover a cure for all speech defects in children.
Defining speech defects in children
One of the problems that occur in speech, especially in children, and it occurs as a result of several problems of the speaker’s ability to perform speech sounds properly due to the presence of a defect or disorder in one of the organs responsible for pronunciation and speech (Jbara, 2017, AD, p. 398).
We can point out here that speech defects are not limited to the noticeable defects in pronunciation, but go beyond that to include any noticeable disturbance in the style of speech and its utterance:
- There is an error in sending or receiving verbal messages.
- That this disorder affects the person, both educationally and socially.
- Or this disorder affects the person's interaction with others, so they have a negative attitude towards him.
And when one of these conditions is present in speech disorders, they are considered speech defects that must be addressed by speech and special education specialists through the development of training and practical programs
Causes of speech defects in children
First: Organic reasons
The causes of speech defects in children may be hereditary, including problems in the child’s central nervous system or a defect in the part of the brain responsible for speech and speech, or that the child has cerebral palsy or mental retardation, or that the child is deaf or even weak, which prevents the child from Correctly picking up sounds and language, and this hinders him from picking up sounds and language properly (Al-Shawaqi, 2002, p. 112)
The organic causes may be some defects in the speech system in children, such as deformities of the jaws or the hare lip and the inability to fully close the mouth as a result of muscle weakness, or the presence of some distortions in the teeth or even their complete loss, and the organic causes may be problems in the tongue organ itself, such as its large size Or its small size, prominence, or tongue ties (Al-Saeed, 2002, p. 81).
Second: psychological and social reasons
Psychologists call these reasons functional causes, which include all inorganic causes that can cause speech defects in children, psychological causes include loneliness, fear and anxiety, psychological causes also include emotional trauma and introversion as well as aggression, or may also include low confidence. Self-esteem and feelings of insecurity (Al-Shawaqi, 2002, p. 113).
As for the social reasons, there are many, including:
- The emotional deprivation that the child may suffer and the lack of tenderness from the parents or those around the child.
- The multiplicity of languages or dialects that the child hears in the society in which he is growing up at the time of language acquisition and learning to speak in the child.
- The low cultural level of the family may be one of the strong reasons for the emergence of speech defects in children (Al-Dabbas, 2013, p. 299).
- Weak learning models and a lack of incentives and motives for the child to modify his speech, so speech defects appear strongly in poor environments.
- Parents’ preoccupation or illness, which leads to the child’s distance from the parents, which results in the emergence of many speech defects without treating them (Al-Ma’aytah, 2006, pg. 70)
- Strained relationships between parents and lack of verbal interaction between them.
- The environmental deprivation that the child may suffer from the lack of social relations in the society in which he lives ( Al-Showaqi, 2002 AD, p. 113)
Forms of speech defects in children
First: commutative defects
It means speech defects that are related to the way the letter is pronounced and corrected or formed. These defects appear when the child replaces one letter in place of another letter in the same sentence. Usually the two letters are similar as if they have the same sound output and have the same characteristics. Substitution defects abound between (s, th) and (L, R), (T, D) and commutative defects also appear when the child changes the exit point of the letter, such as when the child pronounces the letter dal instead of the letter Jim to change the letter’s exit point from the middle of the tongue to its tip (Bobka, (2016), p. 41)
And commutative defects take several forms, such as the stop substitution, the fricative substitution, the forward transposition, the vocal substitution, the nasal substitution, and the whisper substitution (Al-Saeed, 2002 AD, p. 245).
It is also called stuttering, and stuttering means “one of the speech defects that occur when the child increases the speed of his speech and his inability to control this speed, and it is usually accompanied by some emotional manifestations such as muscle spasms in his face (Lamlin, 2014 AD, p. 35).
The jingle has been defined by several other definitions, such as: one of the problems and defects of speech in which repetition of some parts of words occurs, as well as when the tongue becomes heavy and the inability to complete the words properly.
Psychologists have developed many theories about the stupor and its causes, such as Travis’ theory, which saw that the main cause of stupor is forcing a left-handed child to write with his right hand . 162)
This defect in speech is called distortion due to the distortion it causes in speech, and by distortion is meant any distortion of the sound of some letters as if they were taken out not from their correct exits, and the cause of this distortion may be a distortion in the teeth, and it may be the absence of the tongue in its correct position during speech (Abbad Taheri, (2017), p. 24.
Fourth: Speech retention
It has also called aphasia, and meant that the child loses the ability to express, as well as his inability to remember the names of people or objects occurs as a result stopped talking and sometimes people call them tongue knot and who loses a child in which his ability to express himself in a way he understands around him (Alhoiqi , 2002, p. 113),
Aphasia takes many forms:
1. That the child loses the linguistic ability in the sense that he cannot produce any linguistic performance, but may go beyond that and lose the ability to express in writing as well.
2. That the child loses his ability to name people, things and all the visuals around him.
3. The child’s inability to observe grammatical rules in speech (Al-Ma’aytah, 2006, pg. 40)
Psychologists, doctors and linguists have distinguished between three types of aphasia: verbal aphasia, pure reading blindness, and sensory aphasia.
It is one of the speech defects in children and it occurs when the child pronounces a word with an increase in a sound or a syllable of the word and makes the word far from its correct pronunciation. Study and there is no fear of it, because it usually fades with time if the reason for it is not satisfactory (Al-Saeed, 2002 AD, p. 83).
Addition speech disorder is considered an infantile disorder, as it decreases in children after the age of eight. Examples include when the child says the word “game” or adds a letter at the beginning of the word, such as “Sabah” instead of “Sabah.”
It means that the child deletes a letter or more from one of the words he pronounces, and it becomes incomprehensible to the recipients. The deletion defect is acceptable for children before school age, and the deletion defect may increase in abnormal children such as children with simple mental disabilities, and the deletion defect is one of the most severe speech defects. Because it affects the understanding of speech greatly, especially when there is a lot of omission in the child’s speech (Al Kaman, 2014 AD, p. 30).
Bites are one of the most common speech defects among children, and it can be defined as “pronouncing some letter sounds in a wrong way that resembles other letters.” Bites may occur as a result of imitation, or because of abnormalities in the mouth and teeth, or because of one of the psychological and social factors we mentioned earlier (Al-Ma’ita, 2006 AD, p. 45)
As for the types of bites, they are:
1. The X-bite: which means replacing the letter “Sin” with another letter, usually the “Thaa’” and that is why it is called “Tha’a” (Al- Shawaqi , 2002 AD, p. 114)
2. The Ra’i Sting: which means replacing the letter “Ra” with another letter, usually the letter “Lam.” The child says “Gal” instead of the word “Man.”
3. Anterior ring sting: It is a sting associated with the letters (q / c / k) so the letter qaaf taa is pronounced, the letter jim dal is pronounced, and the letter kaf taa is pronounced.
It is one of the speech defects in children, which appears in the child’s lack of fluency in speech, either through silence, pause, or repetition of some words. Stuttering usually occurs as a result of parents’ urgency in children’s pronunciation. The cause of stuttering is often functional and not anatomical (Saleh, 2002 AD, p. 67).
How to treat speech defects in children
First: How to diagnose speech defects in children
Before the treatment stage, we must know how to diagnose speech defects in children, by:
NS Medical and clinical examination of the speech system in the child.
NS Performing a phonetic analysis of the child to measure the extent of his success in communicating in all its three aspects: language, speech, and voice.
NS Do some functional assessments, which are tests through which the child's abilities can be measured and the extent of his speech defects.
NS Collecting and analyzing some of the child’s samples to find out the type of defect in his speech and then developing a treatment plan for him.
NS The speech pathologist conducts a dialogue with the child to know the assessment of his speech defects, provided that the dialogue is about something that concerns the child and he loves, such as talking about toys or his friends.
NS The speech-language pathologist asks the child to list things in sequence, such as days of the week or numbers, to see how well the child is speaking.
NS The speech pathologist asks the child to repeat some of the words that the specialist utters, through which the specialist can identify speech defects such as substitution, deletion, addition and other speech defects in children (Bobka, 2016 AD, p. 50)
Second: How to treat speech defects in children
1/ Medical treatment
Medical treatment is one of the most important treatments for speech defects in children, as it is necessary to treat organic problems, which may be in the speech system, nervous system, auditory system, or respiratory system, and medical treatment may require some time and may also require surgery such as graft surgery. Throat gap or tongue-tie surgery (Al-Shawaqi, 2002, p. 114)
Psychological treatment is very important in the event that the cause of the child’s speech defects is a psychological cause. Psychotherapy can reach the real causes behind these speech defects and then can be treated. Through psychotherapy, the psychologist can know the child’s desires and tendencies as well as his feelings and the nature of his relationship with his family And his friends, and through psychological treatment, can increase the child’s self-confidence, so he can overcome some of the defects of fluency in speech, such as stuttering and stuttering (Al-Dabbas, 2013, p. 312)
Psychotherapy is used to develop some social skills in children, such as conversational skill and persistence, assertive skills such as empathy and courtesy skills, and social cognition skills, which include how to socially interact with others.
3/ Speech therapy
What is meant by speech therapy is the treatment that depends on the speech itself and trying to modify it to be properly, and it is sometimes called learning to speak again, and the speech therapy is carried out either in a partial way or in a total way, and the best is the total method where the specialist pronounces the word with reference to its meaning (Al-Shawaqi). , 2002, p. 114)
Speech therapy is carried out through some sessions that include pronunciation exercises, starting with vowels, then consonants, then pronouncing words, sentences, and so on. Training for a long time to treat speech defects (Saleh, 2002 AD, pg. 78)
4/ group therapy
It is one of the latest types of treatment for speech defects in children, where treatment is carried out through games, puzzles and riddles for a group of children at the same time, allowing competition on the one hand and encouragement on the other.
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