Tasks Performed by The Operating System
The following are some of the operating system's basic jobs and functions:
Memory management refers to the administration of primary memory, often known as main memory. Main memory is a huge collection of words or bytes, each with its own address.
The main memory provides quick storage that the CPU can access directly. A programme must be in main memory in order to be run. Memory management is handled by the operating system in the following ways:
- The operating system keeps track of the basic memory, determining which parts have been utilised previously and which parts have not been used in programming. The operating system also determines which processes will receive memory, when and how much.
- When a process requests memory, it allocates it.
- When a process no longer requires memory or is terminated, it is de-allocated.
Management of Processors
In a multi-programming environment, the operating system chooses which process, when, and for how long the processor is used. Process scheduling is the name for this function. To manage the CPU, the operating system performs the following tasks:
- The traffic monitor is the programme in charge of keeping track of the processor and the current condition of the process.
- A process is assigned to the processor (CPU).
- When an operation is no longer required, the processor is de-allocated.
The operating system manages the device's connectivity through its drivers, and it does so by performing the following tasks:
- The I/O controller, which is responsible for keeping track of all devices, is the programme responsible for this duty.
- It determines which process the device receives, when it receives it, and for how long.
- Allocates the device in the most efficient way possible.
- Removes the ability to customise hardware.
Management of Files
For convenience of navigation and use, the file system is frequently arranged into directories. Other files and directives may be found in these directories.
The following file management tasks are performed by the operating system:
- It keeps track of data, location, usage, and status, among other things. The file system is a term that refers to a collection of utilities.
- He is the one who decides who gets the resources.
- It distributes resources.
- Removes the allotment of resources.
Other Important Activities
Here are some of the most important functions of an operating system:
- It restricts unwanted access to programmes and data by using a password and other similar mechanisms.
- System performance monitoring — keeping track of how long it takes for the system to respond to a service request.
- Implementation of software - Keep track of the time and resources spent by various functions and users.
- Produce dumps, tracers, error messages, and other debugging and troubleshooting tools with error detection tools.
- Collaboration between the software and the rest of the users Compilers, interpreters, compilers, and other software are coordinated and assigned to various computer users.
What is The Operating System?
On a computer, the operating system is the most crucial programme. It is in charge of the computer's memory and functions. The operating system (OS) of a computer maintains all of the computer's software and hardware, as well as all of the computer's software and hardware, and contact with the computer is possible without understanding how to speak the computer language.
Many distinct computer applications are usually running at the same time, and they all require access to your computer's central processing unit (CPU), memory, and storage, which the operating system coordinates to ensure that each programme receives what it requires.
Different Kinds of Operating Systems
Any computer you buy will normally come with an operating system preinstalled. Although the majority of people stick with the operating system that came with their computer, it is possible to upgrade or even switch operating systems. Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux are the three most popular operating systems for PCs.
Throughout the growth of operating systems, modern operating systems have used a graphical user interface, or GUI (pronounced gooey), which allows you to use your mouse to click icons, buttons, and menus, and everything is clearly presented on the screen using a combination of visuals and text.
Each operating system's graphical user interface (GUI) is unique, so switching to a new one may feel strange at first. However, modern operating systems are designed to be simple to use, and most of the fundamental ideas remain the same.
In the mid-1980s, Microsoft released the Windows operating system. The most current versions of Windows are Windows 10 (launched in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), and Windows Vista (issued in 2003). (2007). Windows comes with a number of applications preinstalled. It comes preloaded on the majority of new computers, contributing to its status as the world's most popular operating system.
macOS (previously OS X) is an Apple operating system that comes preinstalled on all Macintosh and Mac computers, with some special versions such as Mojave (issued in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (released in 2017). (2016 ).
According to StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users make up fewer than 10% of all operating systems worldwide, which is significantly lower than the percentage of Windows users (more than 80 percent ). One explanation for this is that Apple computers are more expensive, but they are more popular. On Windows, many people can see and feel macOS.
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a group of open source operating systems that anybody can modify and distribute anywhere in the globe. Unlike proprietary software, such as Windows, which can only be modified by the corporation that owns it, open source software can be modified by anybody. The benefits of Linux include the fact that it is free and that there are numerous distributions - or versions - to select from.
Despite the fact that Linux users account for less than 2% of worldwide operating systems, most servers run Linux since it is reasonably easy to customise, according to StatCounter Global Stats.
Operating Systems for Mobile Devices
So far, the operating systems we've discussed have been intended to work on desktop and laptop computers. Because mobile devices, such as phones, computers, and MP3 players, differ from desktop and laptop computers, they run operating systems tailored to them. Apple iOS and Google Android are two examples of mobile operating systems.
Although mobile operating systems aren't as distinct as those for desktop and laptop computers, and they can't run all of the same software, you can still do a lot of things with them, such as view movies, browse the web, manage your calendar, and play games.